Яка різниця між "GNU/Linux" та "Linux"?
Ви постійно згадуєте одне або інше. Що це все означає?
На початку, слово Linux означало головний компонент (який зветься ядро), що є складником системи GNU. Те, чим зараз користуються люди, достеменно зветься дистрибутиви системи GNU/Linux".
На практиці, звичайно, слово "Linux" набуло значно більшої поширеності, тому сьогодні люди називають усю систему просто "Linux". Цей факт викликає багато суперечок.
Calling the system GNU/Linux is much more meaningful, technically (end-users use a lot of "GNU" and a little of "Linux") but also philosophically: the strength and momentum of the Free Software movement started with and are still carried by the GNU project.
Називати систему Linux є більш практичним і привабливим для користувачів комп'ютерів, які часто вважають — Windows, це єдине на землі.
And what has that software to do with a GNU?
When Richard Stallman started to design GNU, the main system in use was Unix, which is proprietary. Because GNU is similar in function to (and compatible with) Unix, but is free software, he coined the term GNU which stands for GNU's Not Unix. It's a recursive acronym. If you enjoy that kind of humour, check out what GNU Hurd means.
Чи є Linux зареєстрованим товарним знаком?
Yes. You cannot sell any random software under the name of Linux®. The trademark is held by the Linux Mark Institute.
Чи є GNU/Linux однією єдиною вільною операційною системою?
Ні. GNU/Linux на сьогоднішній день є найбільш широко уживаною вільною системою, однак існує ряд інших систем.
Understanding free software
Чи є "Відкрите програмне забезпечення" і "Вільне програмне забезпечення" одним й тим самим?
Yes and no. Technically, the great majority of open source programs are free software and vice-versa.
На теренах філософії, ситуація вельми відрізняється. Термін "відкрите програмне забезпечення" був започаткований, з метою зробити "вільне програмне забезпечення" привабливішим. Його прихильники бачать відкритий код як ліпший спосіб робити програми.
Supporters of the "free software" term value the freedom, not merely the way software is made, and thus argue that the term "open source" misses the point.
Який з варіантів вам використовувати, просто залежить від вашого бачення програмного забезпечення.
Why are some GNU/Linux distributions sold, not given away?
Some websites actually sell distributions of GNU/Linux. So, why do you write it is "free as speech and available at no charge"?
The concept of free software, refers to freedom, not price. You have the freedom to copy, study, modify, and give free software away.
Most companies developing free software make money by selling services around their software, rather than the software itself. This is sometimes done by selling everything as a package: the customer buys the CD, book, and support contract at once. The software can still guarantee your freedoms.
Why are some GNU/Linux distributions not fully free?
Some GNU/Linux distributions are available at no charge, but include restrictive software. Why is it so?
Існує 3 основних типи правил включання пропрієтарного програмного забезпечення:
- Some GNU/Linux distributors allow non-free software in order to enable hardware functionality. This happens because some hardware manufacturers such as NVidia do not care about their customers' freedoms, and only release restricting firmware and drivers (some of them don't even release anything, like Broadcom). These are available at no cost (they are freeware) but under restrictive licenses. Distributions such as Ubuntu and Fedora thus include such components to improve hardware compatibility.
- Some GNU/Linux distributors do not compromise on the freedom of software, and make sure their distribution are entirely free. Such is the case of Debian (though non-free software can be installed if necessary).
- Some GNU/Linux distributors assemble free and restrictive software without distinction. Such distributors would not like users to think of their freedom, and rather advertise only the technical capabilities of their product. Using such distributions isn't much better than using Windows. We value your freedom and recommend you choose carefully!
Is macOS also a free operating system?
Do all the reasons for avoiding Windows apply to macOS?
It's quite common for Mac users to believe they are exempt from restrictions associated with Windows. Unfortunately such is not the case.
macOS does have some low-level components which are free software; and Apple puts less energy into customer lock-in (with some notable efforts such as BootCamp).
However, the end-user is still fundamentally restricted – because of the proprietary license, he/she cannot use macOS for all purposes, nor copy, study, modify, or redistribute it.
Happily, because these freedoms matter a lot, it's possible to run popular GNU/Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu) on Mac computers.
Aren't GNU/Linux users the ones who make illegal downloads?
Isn't GNU/Linux about cracking, "piracy" and illegal download websites?
No. Wherever you read or heard this, you should update your views. GNU/Linux is completely distinct from such things. Whether you want to do them, or whether you prefer intelligent, legal downloads, GNU/Linux will work just as well as Windows. Unfortunately you can't identify gangsters by the make of their cars; the same thing goes for their operating system.
GNU/Linux was made by people who don't like the thought of all the world's computers running just one company's proprietary products. There is certainly nothing wrong with that!
Прочитайте більше в статті:Як Невірно Зрозуміти Вільне ПЗ.
Is GNU/Linux a form of communism?
"Everything has to be free" and "No one owns anything" sounds somewhat frightening. Are GNU/Linux and its GPL something for anarchists or communists?
GNU/Linux has nothing to do with a political system and anyone – regardless of their political views – can use it. We have this explained simply in our article "Як Невірно Зрозуміти Вільне ПЗ".
Does GNU/Linux come pre-installed on computers?
Yes it does. LinuxPreloaded.com has built a website specially for that purpose, listing vendors that sell GNU/Linux desktops and laptops.
Note that buying new hardware is not necessary to use GNU/Linux!
Чи можу я отримати GNU/Linux моєю мовою?
Так.Всі основні дистрибутиви, такі як які ми рекомендуємо, є доступні на основних мовах, і мають підтримку багатьох розкладок клавіатури.
Unlike Windows, all languages are included on each installation CD, so there is no need for you to download (or pay for!) another whole version to merely change the language on your computer.
Is it legal to install GNU/Linux on my computer?
There is a shiny Windows sticker on it! Am I allowed to erase Windows or use it together with GNU/Linux?
Yes. It is absolutely, completely legal, provided of course it's your computer!
The sticker on it is purely marketing, it has no legal value. We believe it is one fundamental right to choose which software to run on our own hardware.
Do I have to purchase a new computer to run GNU/Linux?
Не зовсім. Це буде запущено на вашому власному комп’ютері.
The only thing you might be worried about is using very recent special hardware, such as graphics cards. Otherwise, almost all GNU/Linux distributions can run on normal PCs (often called "i386" or "x86" computers), 64-bit-processor computers and Apple Mac computers. Read how you can try or install GNU/Linux on your computer, be it instead of or together with Windows.
Will Microsoft Office run on GNU/Linux?
No. It is technically possible to adapt Microsoft Office to GNU/Linux, but Microsoft isn't keen on allowing Office users to choose their operating system.
However, a complete, free, reliable office suite exists: LibreOffice. Or you can choose its close cousin, Apache OpenOffice. They will both happily use all your existing office files in MS-Word, MS-Excel, and MS-PowerPoint format, and are really free (both as in freedom and as in price). And they run on Windows as well as on GNU/Linux.
Чи я можу відтворювати мої DVD-диски та MP3-записи в GNU/Linux?
Простою відповіддю на це питання буде "так", однак це буде лише частиною правди.
Quite a few GNU/Linux distributions do not include MP3 playback software due to the patent situation of the MP3 format. These patent issues do not affect the user directly, so most distributions make it fairly easy to install MP3 support over the Internet after the installation, making it possible to legally play MP3 files, for non-commercial use.
DVDs, on the other hand, are a more difficult situation. Most, if not all, DVDs are encrypted using a system called "CSS". There is a widely supported free software, called
libdvdcss, capable of decrypting DVD videos. However, circumventing the restriction on your DVDs is illegal in many parts of the world, including the USA and the European Union.
There is a legal solution to play your DVDs on GNU/Linux where
libdvdcssis illegal. The Fluendo company has developed an (non-free) application for that purpose which can be purchased from their website.
Non-encrypted DVDs, which include most home-made DVDs, play perfectly well with only free software.
Більше в інтернеті:
Чи можу я грати у популярні 3D-ігри у GNU/Linux?
Yes and no. Some games, for example the Quake series, Dota, Counter-Strike, Tomb Raider, Portal, Left 4 Dead, and many more have GNU/Linux versions. There is also a good selection of online game distribution platforms that sell many high-quality games for GNU/Linux:
Most popular games, alas, only work on Windows and occasionally on macOS. Some Windows games can be run on GNU/Linux with Wine or its non-free variant CrossOver, which involves some unpleasant effort for the user. For a list of games known to work on Wine, see their games database. There is also Proton, a tool released by Valve Software that has been integrated with Steam Play to make playing Windows games on GNU/Linux as simple as hitting the Play button within Steam. For a list of games known to work on Proton, see their games database.
Should I install anti-virus software under GNU/Linux?
Here's the short version of the answer: No. If you simply never run untrusted executables while logged in as the root user (or equivalent), all the "virus checkers" in the world will be at best superfluous; at worst, downright harmful. "Hostile" executables (including viruses) are almost unfindable in the GNU/Linux world – and no real threat to it – because they lack superuser authority, and because GNU/Linux admins are seldom stupid enough to run untrusted executables as a superuser, and because GNU/Linux users' customary and recommended sources for privileged executables enjoy paranoid-grade scrutiny (such that any unauthorised changes would be detected and remedied).
Here's the long version: Still no. Any program on a GNU/Linux box, viruses included, can only do what the user who ran it can do. Real users aren't allowed to hurt the system (only a superuser account can), so neither can programs they run.
See our "GNU/Linux virus FAQ" for more details on this subject.
If you have a question that is not covered here, there are many communities to help you. Our "Більше" section will help you find the right place to ask.