Qu'est-ce que GNU/Linux ?

Le mot Linux vous évoque peut-être des programmeurs barbus tapant du code obscur sur un écran noir. Bonne nouvelle ! Les choses ont changé.

Le principe

GNU/Linux is an operating system, a large piece of software that manages a computer. It is similar to Microsoft Windows, but it is entirely free. The accurate name is GNU/Linux but "Linux" is used more often.

GNU/Linux is not one company's product, but a number of companies and groups of people contribute to it. In fact, the GNU/Linux system is a core component, which is branched off into many different products. They are called distributions.

Distributions change the appearance and function of GNU/Linux completely. They range from large, fully supported complete systems (endorsed by companies) to lightweight ones that fit on a USB memory stick or run on old computers (often developed by volunteers).

Using GNU/Linux

GNU/Linux is no harder to use than Windows, and has many more capabilities. It just takes a dozen minutes to get familiar with a distribution like the ones we recommend for newcomers, which come in with many programs installed.

If you need commercial-quality software to work with business documents, Internet/networking, or multimedia and graphics, it's there right out of the box. Want more than that? GNU/Linux can do – there are many hundreds of free, high quality applications you can find, install and uninstall neatly and easily.

You shouldn't assume however, that GNU/Linux is a clone of Windows. To know what to expect when stepping into it, we suggest you read our Making the switch page.

Plus globalement

When you get a distribution of GNU/Linux, you also get the freedom to study, copy, change, and redistribute it – that's what makes it truly free software.

Many companies develop their own operating system based on the core GNU software: products they do not have exclusive rights on. How does the wheel turn?

  • La plupart des entreprises tirent profit de la vente de support et services autour de leur distribution GNU/Linux. Les clients entreprises achètent une garantie de mises à jour de sécurité et d'assistance. D'autres services incluent souvent de la formation, et des améliorations logicielles à la demande.
  • Some companies, such as HP or IBM, contribute to GNU/Linux because they pre-install it on servers they sell.
  • Une très grande communauté participe bénévolement au développement et à l'amélioration des logiciels libres, ce qui fait baisser les coûts et augmente l'efficacité.

Au final, les utilisateurs individuels bénéficient souvent du logiciel gratuitement, tandis que les clients entreprises peuvent bénéficier de services payants.